Glossary Elidia Olive Oil
Abiotic stress factor:

Non-infectious, non-parasitic stress factor that causes an imbalance between the plant and the environment in which it lives.


Describes the primary taste produced by dilute aqueous solutions of most acid substances (e.g. citric acid, lactic acid, tartaric acid).


Chemical components necessary for combating the maleficent free radicals produced during the millions of chemical reactions taking place in the human system every second. Extra virgin olive oil is renowned for its antioxidant properties.


Perceptible characteristic(taste characteristics for olive oil).


Characteristic primary taste of olive oil obtained from green olives or olives turning colour. It is perceived in the circumvallate papillae on the “V” region of the tongue and it is considered as a positive attribute of virgin olive oil determined according to the intensity of perception.


A sterol serving as an essential structural component of animal cell membranes.


State of abnormal cholesterol levels-higher concentrations of low density lipoprotein (LDL) and lower concentrations of functional high density lipoprotein (HDL)-strongly associated with cardiovascular diseases.

Cold pressing:

Olive oil production method which requires the pressing of the olive fruit to be carried out under temperatures that never exceed 27 ºC. Olive oil produced with cold pressing is of the highest quality as higher temperatures damage olive oil’s scent and increase its acidity. In addition, high pressing temperatures decrease olive oil’s content in polyphenols, vitamins and antioxidants, leading to a product of inferior quality.


Mill fitted with metal moving parts. It is used in the first stage of the production process to smash olives before entering the malaxation phase.

Crushed olive:

Olive that has been crushed in order to obtain its juice. 


Negative attribute of virgin olive oil. Flavour produced when an oil is hermetically packed for too long, particularly in tin containers.


Application of centrifugal force to separate the constituents of the olive paste and oily juice through the differences in their density.


Horizontal decanter centrifuge that separates the solids from the liquids in olive pastes.

Early harvest oil:

Olive oil made from olives harvested at non-optimal ripeness stage at the beginning of the harvesting season. Given its immaturity, the olive fruit performs badly in terms of quantity, however it gives an olive oil of exceptional quality and characteristic taste and aroma. Additionally, the phenolic content is significantly greater.


Negative attribute of virgin olive oil. Flavour of oil obtained from olives which have been collected with earth or mud on them and were not washed before being crushed.

Extra virgin olive oil:

Virgin olive oil fit for consumption as it is which has a free acidity, expressed as oleic acid, of not more than 0.8 grams per 100 grams, and the other characteristics of which correspond to those fixed for this category in the International Olive Council standard (COI/T.15/NC No 3).

Fatty acids:

Carboxylic acids with a long aliphatic tail (chain), which is either saturated or unsaturated. Fatty acids are usually derived from triglycerides or phospholipids. When they are not attached to other molecules, they are known as "free" fatty acids. Fatty acids are important sources of fuel.

Saturated fatty acids:

Long-chain carboxylic acids usually composed of 12-24 carbon atoms with single bonds between them. Saturated fatty acids are typically found in animal fats and are considered by several medical, heart-health, and governmental authorities – including the World Health Organization and the European Food Safety Authority- as a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases.

Unsaturated fatty acids:

Fatty acids that have one or more double bonds between their carbon atoms. Depending on the number of the double bonds, one can distinguish between mono-unsaturated (one double bond) fatty acids and poly-unsaturated (more than one double bonds) fatty acids. 


Material that creates, reconstitutes, conserves or increases soil fertility. A distinction is made between organic fertilizers(manure), chemical fertilizers, soil amendments, conditioners and ph adjusters depending on the size of their effect on the soil.

Filtered olive oil:

Olive oil that has been filtered and normally looks translucent. Although important for removing any foreign substances from the olive oil, filtering inevitably leads to the loss of some nutrients of the oil caught in the filters.


Positive attribute of virgin olive oil determined by the intensity of perception. Set of olfactory sensations provided by sound, fresh olives (either ripe or unripe) and largely depended on the olive cultivar. Fruity is perceived directly and/or through the back of the nose.


Negative attribute of virgin olive oil. Characteristic flavour of oil obtained from olives piled or stored in such conditions as to have undergone an advanced stage of anaerobic fermentation, or of oil which has come in contact with the sediment that settles in underground tanks and vats and has also undergone a process of anaerobic fermentation.


Negative attribute of virgin olive oil. Flavour of oil reminiscent of that of diesel oil, grease or mineral oil.


Describes the attribute(s) of a product which can stimulate the gustatory apparatus by awakening the sensations pertaining to one or more of the four primary tastes: sweet, salty, acid and bitter.

Harvest pole:

Lightweight wooden pole used to shake the tree branches in order to detach the olives from them.

Horizontal malaxator:

Machine fitted with a horizontal shaft for mixing the olive paste produced after crushing the olives.

Integrated olive protection:

Approach to plant health protection that promotes a model of olive growing which is economically feasible, environmental friendly, and allows the crop to perform its social, cultural and ecological roles to the full.


Classification of virgin olive oil according to the intensity of perception when the median of the fruitiness is more than 6.

Intensive olive growing:

Type of olive growing where 300-650 olive trees are planted per hectare. The useful life of the plantation is restricted (approximately 40 years) due to the soil’s ‘overcharge’.

Super-intensive olive growing:

Type of olive growing where 1000-2000 olive trees are planted per hectare. The harvest is carried out with machines along narrow aisles of about 1.5 meters. The useful life of these plantations is positioned at between 12 and 14 years, on average.

Irrigated farming:

Type of farming where irrigation is applied to raise crop production. No irrigation is applied to the majority of Cretan Olive Groves, other than rainwater.


Premises housing the analytical equipment for the control and evaluation of samples of olives, oils and mill by-products.

Linoleic acid:

A polyunsaturated omega-6 fatty acid found in olive oil and other vegetable oils. The word "linoleic" is composed by the Greek word linon (flax) and -oleic which means "of, relating to, or derived from oil of olive"because saturating the omega-6 double bond produces oleic acid. Linoleic acid is a colorless liquid at room temperature.


A biochemical assembly that contains proteins and lipids. Lipoproteins are very important as they allow fats, bound to the proteins, to move through the water inside and outside cells where they are used in several ways. Among the most important lipoproteins, extensively relating to olive oil, are plasma lipoproteins. 

Low-Density Lipoproteins (LDL):

Lipoprotein with a high fat to protein ratio (a lot more fat than proteins), which carries cholesterol from the liver to the cells. Commonly referred to as lipoproteins of bad cholesterol. Substituting animal fats with olive oil has proven to largely decrease the LDL.

High-Density Lipoproteins (HDL):

Lipoprotein with a low fat to protein ratio which collects cholesterol from the tissues and take it back to the liver where it is decomposed. Also known as the “good cholesterol” lipoprotein. Consumption of olive oil is believed to have a positive impact on HDL. 

Malaxation temperature:

Controlled temperature applied to the olive paste in the mixer to make it easier for the oil to coalesce.

Mechanical olive harvesting:

Method of olive tree harvesting where mechanical shakers are used to detach the fruits from the tree’s branches.


Classification of virgin olive oil according to the intensity of perception when the median of the fruitiness is between 3 and 6.

Mild olive oil:

Olive oil for which the median of the bitter and pungent attributes is 2 or less.


Defective olfactory–gustatory sensation associated with olives that have been knocked off the tree by rain and left on the ground.

Non-filtered olive oil:

Virgin olive oil that has not been filtered and therefore looks cloudy.

Oleic acid:

Monounsaturated fatty acid found naturally in many vegetable oils and animal fats. "Οleic" is initially a greek word meaning related to, or derived from oil or olive. It was given its name due to the fact that it is a principal structural component of olive oil, where it makes for 65-83% of the total fat content. As an omega-9 fatty acid, oleic acid is considered one of the healthier sources of fat. Health experts often recommend using it in cooking, and a number of so-called health foods and diet products use it as a substitute for animal fats.

Olive fruit extraction yield:

Percentage ratio between the quantity of olives crushed and the olive oil extracted. For instance a yield 5:1 indicates that 5kg of olives had to be crushed in order to produce 1kg of virgin olive oil.

Olive mash:

Mash obtained by crushing olives.

Olive oil:

Vegetable oil obtained solely from the fruit of the olive tree (Olea europaea L.) to the exclusion of oils obtained using solvents or re-esterification processes and of any mixture with oils of other kinds.

Olive oil acidity:

Proportion of free fatty acids (primarily of oleic acid) in the composition of olive oil. The greater the content of olive oil in free fatty acids the sweeter its taste, which after a certain point becomes a bit sour, and the less intense the burn you experience in your throat as you swallow it. For extra virgin olive oil, the highest quality of olive oil, acidity ranges between 0,1% and 0,8%. Olive oil with high acidity has been produced either from unhealthy and overripe olives or from olives which were damaged during harvest or following harvest were left for too long in the olive mill before being processed for the production of oil.

Olive oil classification:

Process of performing specific analytical tests to determine oil quality.

Olive oil mill:

Facility where olives are processed to produce virgin olive oil.

Olive oil sample:

Representative volume of a batch or lot of oil used for compositional analysis, classification and/or marketing.

Olive orchard:

Plot of land planted with olive trees.

Olive pomace:

Solid by-product of the olive oil production process. Ιt contains a variable percentage of water and oil depending on the centrifuge mechanism used.

Olive tree (olea europaea l.):

Fruit tree originating from the middle East and the Asia Minor. Since antiquity, it has played a central role in several facets of humans’ everyday life including nutrition, trade, economy, medicine, culture, art and sports.

Organic farming:

Type of environment friendly farming in which synthesis products (e.g. conventional pesticides and fertilizers) are not used.


Describes an attribute of a product, perceptible by the sense organs.


Process of darkening the olives’ colour, usually by soaking them in lye solutions and aerated water.

(Olive oil) Peroxides:

Chemical compounds created by the reaction of oxygen with olive oil.

Peroxide value:

Describes the concentration of peroxides in the olive oil sample providing a measure of the state of oxidation of the olive oil. A high peroxide value indicates that the olive oil has undergone significant distortions due to oxidation and shall be expected to have minimum life duration.


A chemical or biological agent meant for preventing, destroying or mitigating pests. The most common use of pesticides is as plant protection products, which in general protect plants from damaging influences such as weeds, diseases or insects.


Important class of natural antioxidants found in high concentrations in olive oil. Tyrosol and hydroxy - tyrosol stand out among the rest of the phenolic content of olive oil as being two uniquely powerful antioxidants. 

Phytosanitary protection:

Protection of crops from abiotic and biotic stress factors.

Protected designation of origin (PDO):

Name of a region, specific place or, in exceptions, a country used to designate an agricultural product or foodstuff originating from that region, specific place or country.

Protected Geographical Indication (PGI):

Name or sign used on certain agricultural products and foodstuffs closely linked to the predetermined geographical area. All three or at least one of the stages of production, processing or preparation take place within that specific region.


Positive attribute of virgin olive oil determined according to the intensity of perception. Biting tactile sensation characteristic of oils produced at the start of the crop year, primarily from olives that are still unripe. It can be perceived throughout the whole of the mouth cavity, particularly in the throat.


All the intrinsic and extrinsic characteristics of a product, process, business etc. that differentiate it from other similar ones and which bear on its ability to satisfy stated and implied needs.


Negative attribute of virgin olive oil. Flavour of oils which have undergone an intense process of oxidation.

Ripe olive fruit:

Olive at the final stage of ripening when the skin and flesh are blackish in colour.

(Olive oil) Wastewater:

Effluent produced during the operation of the olive oil mill. Wastewater of the olive oil mill are composed of vegetable water, the water added during the production process and the water used for cleaning the equipment and installations.


Why Extra Virgin Olive Oil is The Healthiest Fat on Earth
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